You must always provide a reference list at the end of your assignment, before any appendices. This is a list of sources you have used, in alphabetical order, organised by the family name of the author, and providing the publication details so that readers can see and find the sources you have used in your work.
You should only include sources you cited in your work. You may also be asked to provide a bibliography, which is a list of both the sources you have cited in your work, and the sources you have consulted but not cited. You should only provide a bibliography if you have been specifically asked to.
Your reference list should be consistent in style, using QMU’s version of Harvard, and only using another style if you have been specifically asked to in the assignment brief.
If you have used an online resource, you may need to include a link to it in your reference (follow the Cite Them Right guidance for this). Try to find as short a version of a link as possible (ideally no longer than one line). When referencing URLs, make sure to copy them directly from the address bar at the top of the web page. Otherwise any typos will result in an error message. Links should appear as live links (ones that you can click on which will take you to a website) in your reference list unless assignment guidelines specify otherwise.
What kind of link to choose
Sometimes more than one link will be available (for example for journal articles). You will need to decide which link to include. In order of preference, these are:
1. DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
A unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (The International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. The publisher assigns a DOI when an article is published and made available electronically.
For example: https://doi.org/10.1109/5.771073
A DOI is the best link to use because it is the most sustainable form of link through which readers should always be able to access the source.
2. Permalink (if there is no DOI listed)
A persistent URL that will return the user to the same resource every time.
For example: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/qmu/detail.action?docID=867683
If a DOI is not available and the URL is very long, the first part of the URL (the information before the first forward slash /) is sufficient for the reader to find your source.
3. URL (If there is neither a DOI nor a Permalink)
A location element that you can find address bar at the top of the web page. Because websites are updated often, the URL you save today may not work tomorrow. This is why DOIs and Permalinks are preferable.
For example: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng149
If you cannot find a DOI, permalink or URL to the specific source (such as an e-book), use the URL of the website as a whole (for example, ebookcentral.proquest.com/)