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Critical Appraisal : Physiotherapy

Recommended tools and checklists for Physiotherapy


Checklist for appraising grey literature


critical appraisal tool for systematic reviews that include randomised and non-randomised studies of healthcare interventions or both

Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (Oxford) Critical Appraisal Tools 

CEBM's worksheets to assess systematic reviews, diagnostic, prognosis, and RCTs

CASP Critical Appraisal Skills Programme 

Includes checklists for case control studies, clinical prediction rule, cohort studies, diagnostic studies, economic evaluation, qualitative studies, RCTs and systematic reviews

GRADE - The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation working group 

Guidelines and publications for grading the quality of evidence in healthcare research and policy

JBI Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools 

Checklists for Analytical cross sectional studies, case control studies, case reports, case series, cohort studies, diagnostic test accuracy, economic evaluations, prevalence studies, qualitative research, quasi-experimental (non-randomised) studies, RCTs, systematic reviews and for text and opinion  

MATT Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool

A tool designed to critically appraise quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods studies included within systematic mixed-studies reviews.


PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) Scale - appraisal resources including a tutorial and appraisal tool

RoB 2 

A revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials


Critical appraisal notes and checklists for case control studies, cohort studies, diagnostic studies, economic studies, RCTs, meta-analyses and systematic reviews

STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) 

For cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (combined),  cohort, case-control, cross-sectional studies and conference abstracts


A general checklist for appraising different study designs and articles.


Additional resource:

NICE Guidelines, The Manual Appendix H. pp9-24

 The document outlines examples of NICE's preferred checklists for assessing risk of bias or the quality of studies.